/ Root directory—the starting point of the directory tree.

/bin Essential binary files, such as commands that are needed by both the system administrator and normal users. Usually also contains the shells, such as Bash.

/boot Static files of the boot loader.

/dev Files needed to access host-specific devices.

/etc Host-specific system configuration files.

/home Holds the home directories of all users who have accounts on the system.
However, root’s home directory is not located in /home but in /root.

/lib Essential shared libraries and kernel modules.

/media Mount points for removable media.

/mnt Mount point for temporarily mounting a file system.

/opt Add-on application software packages.

/root Home directory for the superuser root.

/sbin Essential system binaries and commands that are needed by system administrator.

/tmp Temporary files.

/usr Secondary hierarchy with read-only data.

/var Variable data such as log files.

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